In 2014, Fiat Chrysler began filling the air conditioning systems on almost all of its models with R1234yf refrigerant. That same year, General Motors (GM) began using it in the Cadillac XTS. Since then, GM has been gradually switching over its entire line of vehicles to R1234yf, and Ford has also begun using it, too.
Premium-priced high-performance luxury cars tend to push the envelope in terms of braking system performance. While a disc/drum or disc/disc system found on any production vehicle is designed to provide safe and reliable braking, luxury performance cars tend to be outfitted with “spirited” driving in mind. As engine power increases, accompanied by the potential for higher speed operation, there’s more demand on the brake system, requiring the system to meet these challenges.
We can’t possibly have all the tools that we need to repair every vehicle that comes into our shop, even if we concentrate on only a couple of makes or manufacturers. There are simply too many dedicated tools required today to perform all of the required tasks on today’s engine, transmission and drivetrain systems. Even a simple water pump service can now require highly specialized tools, but dealing with a check engine light doesn’t always require the factory scan tool, even if you have one available.
Before cars had electronic controls, all their malfunctions were something we could see, hear, smell, feel or sometimes even taste (ever sipped coffee next to a car with a coolant leak?). Sometimes we used a test light or a vacuum gauge to pinpoint problems, and for really advanced diagnostics we had an engine analyzer with an analog ’scope as big as a roll away toolbox that would actually let us see secondary ignition patterns.
Proper wheel alignment is obviously important in terms of preventing premature tire wear, and to maintain predictable and controllable handling and braking. But in winter weather, where the customer encounters slippery conditions, wheel angles become much more critical. The effect of improper toe, camber and/or caster angles becomes more pronounced and are compounded as the coefficient of friction between the tires and the road are reduced.